The Capuchin monastery in Vodnjan dates from 1748, its construction and the land on which it had been built were financed by the inhabitants of Vodnajn. By the monastery stood the small Church of St. Joseph.
The monastery was founded following the ideas of the townspeople who were fond of the simplicity of the Capuchin Order. However, the monastery existed for about only 60 years before being abolished by the French administration at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1807 it became a military hospital and maintained this function throughout the Austrian period, until 1894. During this period it also served as quarantine for malaria patients. Subsequently, the monastery assumed other functions such as kindergarten and cinema.
After World War II, the perimeter wall was pulled down and Vodnjan gained a town park. It is believed that the monastery was founded at the site of the former town gallows.